Understanding, principles, and measures of scientific approaches

Understanding Scientific approaches 

A scientific approach is a model of learning that uses the scholarly rules that contain a series of data collection activities through observation, Menanya, experimentation, information or data, and then Communicating (Kemendikbud, 2014).
Understanding, principles, and measures of scientific approaches
Scientific approaches have been used in U.S. education in the late 19th century where scientific studies emphasize the formalistic laboratory methods that are then directed at scientific facts. The scientific approach has actually been used in the curriculum in Indonesia with the term learning by doing known by the learning of students active in conducting the learning activities that are formally adopted in curriculum 1975.

The objective of scientific approaches in learning is to improve students ' thinking skills, shaping the ability to systematically resolve problems, create learning conditions so that learners feel that learning is a necessity, training learners to raise ideas, improve student learning outcomes, and develop student characters.

The learning process using a scientific approach is directed so that learners can formulate problems (with a lot of questions), rather than just resolving the problem by answering only. The learning process is aimed at practicing analytical thinking (learners are taught how to make decisions) rather than mechanistic thinking (regular listening and memorizing alone (Majid, 2014).
Understanding, principles, and measures of scientific approaches

Here's the definition and understanding of scientific approaches from several sources of books:
  • According to Rusman (2015), a scientific approach is a learning approach that provides students with extensive opportunities to explore and elaborate on the materials studied, in addition to providing an opportunity for learners to Ability through learning activities designed by teachers.
  • According to Hosnan (2014), a scientific approach is a learning process designed so that learners actively construct concepts, laws, or principles through observing activities, formulating problems, filing/formulating hypotheses, Collect data with various techniques, analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate.
  •  According to Karar and Yenice (2012), a scientific approach is a learning process designed in such a way that learners actively consult concepts, laws or principles through observing stages (to identify or find problems), formulate problems, formulate hypotheses, collect data with various techniques, analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate concepts, laws or principles found.

Objectives and principles of scientific approaches 

According to Hosnan (2014) Scientific approaches have the following characteristics: 1) student-centered; 2) involve the skills of the scientific process in the construction of concepts, laws or principles; 3) Involve potential cognitive processes in stimulating intellectual development, especially students ' high-level thinking skills, and; 4) can develop the character of students.

The purpose of learning using scientific approaches is to develop the character of students. Also, it is also to improve students ' thinking skills so that students can solve every problem they face and have high learning outcomes.

According to Hosnan (2014), the objective of learning using scientific approaches is as follows:
  • To improve intellectual skills, especially the students ' high-level thinking skills.
  • To establish a student's ability to solve a problem systematically.
  • The creation of learning conditions in which students feel that learning is a necessity.
  • Obtained by high learning outcomes.
  • To train students in communicating ideas, especially in writing scientific articles.
  • To develop the student character.
Some principles of scientific approach in learning activities are as follows (Hosnan, 2014):

Learning is student-centered.
  • Learning to form self-concept students.
  • Learning is spared from verbalism.
  • Learning gives students an opportunity to assimilate and accommodate concepts, laws, and principles.
  • Learning encourages the improvement of students ' thinking skills.
  • Learning promotes motivation for student learning and motivation to teach teachers.
  • Give students an opportunity to practice their communication skills.
  • Validation of the concepts, laws, and principles that the students are constructing in their own structure.

Measures of scientific approaches 

Steps of scientific approach in the learning process include observing (are), the minister (questioning), trying (experimenting), processing data or information followed by analyzing, your (associating), and conclude, Presenting data or information (communicating), and creating and forming networking. According to Daryanto (2014), the measures of scientific approaches in learning are as follows:

a. Observing (observation)
The method of observing prioritizes the learning process (meaningful learning). The method of observing is very beneficial for the fulfillment of students ' curiosity, so the learning process has a high abundance of significance. With the students ' observation methods find the fact that there is a link between objects analyzed by the learning materials used by teachers.

b. Use it
In the curriculum, 2013 activities were expected to emerge from students. His study activities were conducted by asking questions about unintelligible information from what was observed or questions to get additional information about what was observed.

c. Collecting information
Activity collecting information is a follow up of the inquiring. This activity is done by digging and collecting information from various sources through various means. Learners can read a variety of sources, pay attention to a more thorough phenomenon or object, or even experiment.

d. Associate/Process Information
In the activities of associating/processing information, There is a reason for the activities of the learning process with a scientific approach adopted in the 2013 curriculum to illustrate that teachers and learners are active actors. The reasoning is a logical and systematic thought process for empirical facts that can be observed to gain a sense of knowledge.

e. Communicating
In the scientific approach, teachers are expected to give students the opportunity to communicate what they have learned. This activity can be done through writing or telling what is found in information-seeking activities, associating, and discovering patterns.