Remedial functions, Principles, approaches, and forms of learning

Remedial Sense of learning 

Remedial teaching or Remedial learning is an activity in the teaching and learning process conducted by the teachers or related parties in an effort to provide assistance to students who have difficulty learning so as to achieve learning outcomes According to its capabilities.

Remedial teaching or teaching improvement is teaching that serves to help the child to achieve the expected outcome. Remedial learning is special because it is adapted to the characteristics of learning difficulties faced by students. This service is provided to students to improve their learning achievements to achieve the established eligibility criteria. This activity is aimed at helping students who are experiencing difficulties in mastering the subject matter.

Remedial functions, Principles, approaches, and forms of learning
Remedial learning is a learning system aimed at optimizing learning performance by identifying the difficulties experienced by learners, finding the factors of the cause, and then Seeking troubleshooting alternatives to learning difficulties, whether using preventive or healing based on complete and objective data and information.

Here's the definition and sense of remedial learning from multiple sourcebooks:

  • According to Ahmadi and Supriyono (1990), remedial is a form of teaching that is healing or correcting briefly the teaching that makes it good. This remedial program is expected to help students who are not finished to achieve their learning outcomes.
  • According to Kunandar (2007), remedial is a form of learning that is treating, curing, or correcting learning and making it better in achieving maximum learning objectives.
  • According to Arikunto (2006), remedial is an activity given to students who have not mastered the lesson materials that have been given teachers with the intention of enhancing the mastery of teaching materials so that students are expected to achieve the learning objectives has been determined to achieve a learning survival that will have a good impact on student learning achievements.
  • According to Mulyadi (2008), remedial is all the effort done to understand and establish the type of learning nature. The factors of the cause and how to set the possibility to resolve it, both curatively (healing) and preventive (prevention) based on data and information as objectively as possible.
  • According to Sukardi (2011), remedial is a teacher's effort (with or without assistance/cooperation with other party members) to allow individual or group of students with certain characteristics to be more capable of developing themselves (increased achievement, Adjustment) as optimally as possible so as to understand the minimum expected success criteria, through an interactive process that is planned, organized, directed towards the security of individual objectives and a group of students and the supporting environment.
Remedial goals and functions 

Remedial learning aims to allow students to understand themselves, improve or change the way they study, choose the Mater and facilities quickly, develop attitudes and habits, and carry out the learning tasks.

According to Ahmadi and Supriyono (1990), remedial learning objectives are as follows:

  1. For students to understand and identify themselves especially those who are concerned with learning achievements, for example the ability of his weakness and the type and nature of his difficulties.
  2. Improve or change the way of learning towards the better.
  3. Choosing the right materials and learning facilities to overcome the difficulties of his studies.
  4. Develop new attitudes and habits that can encourage the achievement of good learning outcomes.
  5. Complete and carry out the learning tasks that are given to him properly and well.
According to Kunandar (2007), there are six remedial learning functions, namely; Corrective function, the function of understanding, enrichment function, adjustment function, acceleration function, and therapeutic function. The explanation to the six remedial functions are as follows:

  1. Corrective function, that is through remedial learning can be done correction or improvement to the things that are deemed to have not fulfilled what is expected in the overall learning process.
  2. The function of understanding, which is remedial learning allows teachers, students, or other parties to gain a better and more comprehensive understanding of the students ' personal.
  3. The enrichment function, which is remedial learning, will be able to enrich the learning process so that material not delivered to regular learning can be obtained through remedial learning.
  4. The customization function, which is remedial learning, can form learners to adopt or adapt to their environment. This means that learners can learn according to their abilities so that the chances of achieving better results are getting bigger.
  5. Acceleration function, which is with remedial learning can be obtained better learning results by using effective and efficient time. In other words, it can accelerate the learning process both from time and material.
  6. The therapeutic function, i.e. directly or indirectly, remedial learning can cure or improve the personality conditions of learners who are thought to exhibit irregularities.
Remedial Principles 

According to Iskandar (2009), several principles must be considered in remedial learning by its nature as a special service, namely:

a. Adaptive

Each student individual has its own character and uniqueness, therefore remedial learning programs should allow learners to learn according to their respective pace, opportunity, and learning style. In other words, remedial learning should accommodate the individual differences of learners.

b. Interactive

In remedial learning process should allow learners to intensively interact with educators and learning resources available. It is based on the consideration that the study activities of the improved learners need to obtain monitoring and supervision to know the progress of the learning. If there are learners who have difficulty immediately assisted.

b. Flexibility in learning and assessment methods

In line with the uniqueness and difficulty of learning different learners, remedial learning should be used as a variety of teaching methods that correspond to the characteristics of learners.

d. Giving feedback as soon as possible

The feedback in the form of information provided to learners about the progress of learning needs to be provided as soon as possible. Feedback can be corrective and confirmative. As soon as possible give the feedback inevitable the protracted study of the learner experienced.

e. Sustainability and limitations in the provision of services

A regular learning program in remedial learning is a whole, so regular learning programs with remedial must be ongoing and the program is always available so that at any time learners can access them according to Each occasion.

Remedial Learning Approach 

According to Makmun (2007), the approaches that can be done in remedial learning are as follows:

a. Curative approach 

This approach is held given the fact that there is a person or many students, even perhaps all members of the Study Group are unable to complete the program perfectly according to the criteria of success in the teaching and learning process. To achieve the achievement goal can use the following approaches:

  1. Repetition. Repetition can be done at the end of a particular lesson unit meeting, and the end of each unit of implementation Study program can be done individually (if those who have limited difficulties) and groups (if apparently, some students have Types/properties of errors or difficulties alike).
  2. Enrichment. This service is imposed on students whose weakness is mild and academically possible including gifted by means of assignment (homework) or problems done in the classroom.
  3. Acceleration. The service is aimed at talented students but demonstrates psychosocial difficulties (emotional ego).

b. Preventive approach 

This approach is aimed at certain students who are based on the predicted data or information or are suspected of having difficulty completing certain courses that will be fulfilled. Based on these predictions, repair program services can be done in the form of homogeneous learning groups, individual forms as well as in the form of groups with remedial class.

c. Development approach 

This approach is a teacher's effort during the teaching and learning process. The fundamental goal of this approach is to allow students to overcome the obstacles/difficulties that may be experienced during the teaching process as it is necessary to have the role of guidance and counseling so that the teaching objectives have been Formulated successfully.

Remedial Forms of Learning 

According to Ahmadi and Supriyono (1990) and Muhaimin and Rahman (1996), there are several forms of activities that can be done for the implementation of remedial learning, namely:

  • Reteaching. That is, the improvement is done by teaching back the material that has been learned to students who still have not mastered the lesson. It is more commonly done by teachers in general.
  • Tutorials. That is to provide learning guidance in the form of providing guidance, assistance, instruction, direction, and motivation so that students learn effectively and efficiently.
  • Give homework. Given the assignment of the house, students are expected to reopen the record and then study it to complete the assignment. In this way, students will try to better understand the lesson, in order to pursue a home assignment given by its teacher.
  • Group discussion. Remedial teaching can be done by a group discussion by forming a group of 5-10 children, to discuss a problem together, and hopefully, with the discussion the problem will be more easily solved.
  • Use worksheets. Provision of worksheets to work with students at home, making students study again. And this will make students better understand the subject matter.
  • The use of audiovisual tools. Remedial teaching can be done using the media. Because with the media, lessons will be more interesting and easier to understand by students. The audiovisual tools that can be used as a source of teaching are radio, tape recorder, language laboratory, film frame, OHP, and others.