Brainstorming Methods in Learning

Understanding the Brainstorming method 

The brainstorming method is a technique or way of teaching that is used in group discussions to generate new ideas, thoughts, or ideas by throwing a problem into students by the teacher, then students answer or express the opinion or Comments so that the problem develops into a new problem.

The brainstorming method is similar to the discussion method, where the goal is to gather ideas and opinions of information, knowledge, experience, from all participants. On the method of discussion the idea of a person can be responded to (supported, supplemented, reduced, or unagreed) by another participant, but on the brainstorming method of others ' opinions are not to be responded to.

The brainstorming method was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in 1953 in his book Applied Imagination. According to Osborn, groups can multiply their creative results by brainstorming, where brainstorming works by focusing on problems, and then freely popping up as many solutions as possible and expanding them as far as possible.

Brainstorming Methods in Learning
Here are the definitions and brainstorming insights from several book sources:
  • According to Roestiyah (2012), brainstorming is a technique or way of teaching conducted by teachers in the classroom, by throwing a problem into class by the teacher, then learners answer or express an opinion, or comment So it may be that the problem develops into a new problem, or it can be interpreted as a way to get the idea of a group of people in a short period of time.
  • According to Sutikno (2007), brainstorming is a form of discussion in order to gather ideas, opinions, information, knowledge, experience, from all participants. Unlike discussions, where the idea of a person can be responded to (supported, supplemented, reduced, or unagreed) by another participant, on the use of brainstorming methods, others are not to be responded to.
  • According to Minter and Reid (2007), brainstorming is another way that companies use to produce ideas today. Brainstorming is collecting a group of people, with the goal of producing new and fresh thoughts.
  • According to Aqib (2013), brainstorming is a technique or way of teaching performed by teachers in the classroom. This method is done by throwing a problem into the student by the teacher, then the student responds or expresses the opinion, or comments so that the problem may develop into a new problem.

The purpose of the Brainstorming method 

According to Makarao (2009), the implementation of the brainstorming method in learning has the following objectives:
  1. Encouraging the delivery of ideas or learning experiences that greatly help the occurrence of reflection in the group.
  2. Getting as many opinions, ideas from learning about the problems being discussed.
  3. Foster learning in combining and developing creative thinking through emerging ideas.
  4. Stimulate learning participation.
  5. It creates a pleasant atmosphere.
  6. Exercise the creativity of thinking learners.
  7. Train learners to express new ideas according to their imagination.
  8. Collecting a number of opinions from a learning group that comes from reality in the field.
Aspects of Brainstorming methods
The aspects that should be considered as a condition of the brainstorming method in the learning process are as follows:

  1. Focus on quantity. The assumption here is that the more ideas are triggered, the more likely idea of becoming a problem solution is getting bigger.
  2. Delayed criticism. In brainstorming, criticism of emerging ideas will be postponed. The assessment was done at the end of the session, this is to make students feel free to bring up various ideas during the study.
  3. A welcome to the unusual idea. An unusual idea came to be greeted warmly. It could be that this unusual idea is a solution to the problem that will give a good perspective on the future.
  4. Combine and refine ideas. Good ideas can be combined into one better idea.

Brainstorming Method Steps
According to Sani (2013), the steps of brainstorming method in learning are as follows:

  1. Understand the rules for brainstorming and relive or re-submit the rules, and paste them on the wall so that all learners can see the rule sheets.
  2. Teachers determine the topic of discussion and write topics on the flipchart.
  3. Teachers appoint a learner to write ideas on the Flipchart/chalkboard.
  4. Teachers ask students or groups to raise ideas related to the topics covered.
  5. Stop and break to hatch ideas (incubation period). If planned to proceed to the evaluation stage (in the first phase), a break can be interspersed with discussions to clarify those ideas, not to criticize.
  6. Evaluation stage of the idea, the teacher discussed one by one response that emerged.
Advantages and disadvantages of Brainstorming methods 

According to Roestiyah (2012), the use of brainstorming methods in the teaching and learning process has the following advantages and disadvantages:

a. Advantages
The advantages or advantages of brainstorming methods are:
  1. Children are actively thinking to express their opinions.
  2. Train students thinking quickly and arranged logically.
  3. Increase students ' participation in receiving lessons.
  4. A less-active student gets help from a clever friend or from a teacher.
  5. Healthy competition occurs.
  6. Kids feel free and excited.
  7. The atmosphere of democracy and discipline can be grown.
b. Disadvantages
The lack or weakness of the brainstorming method is:
  1. Teachers do not give enough time for the students to think well.
  2. Less clever kids always miss.
  3. Teachers only hold opinions never formulate conclusions.
  4. It does not guarantee the results or troubleshooting.
  5. Problems could evolve in unexpected directions.