Understanding Mastery Learning
Mastery Learning or complete learning is a teaching system approach that requires students to be completely mastered each unit of study, both individually and in groups, evidenced by the submission of student learning outcomes with Using various methods applied.
Mastery Learning was developed by John B. Caroll (1963) and Benjamin Bloom (1971). Both develop a learning system that allows all students to achieve a number of educational objectives. This Model outlines the fundamental factors affecting the success of student learning, such as the talent and time required to achieve an achievement level.
The complete learning Model is composed of five stages, namely orientation, presentation, structured practice (guided practice) and independent Practice (training), which is done in the finished study. The purpose of the teaching and learning process is ideal for the learner to be mastered entirely by the learners. This is called a mastery learning or learning complete, meaning full mastery (Nasution, 2011).
Here's the definition and sense of mastery learning from several book sources:
Here's the definition and sense of mastery learning from several book sources:
- According to Majid (2013), Mastery Learning is an approach in learning that requires students to be completely mastered all standards of competency as well as basic competencies of subjects.
- According to Usman (1993), Mastery learning is the achievement of the minimum mastery level set for each unit of study both individually and in groups, in other words, what students learn can be fully mastered.
- According to Jones and Laura (2003), Mastery Learning is a learning approach that requires students to thoroughly master all of the competency standards and basic competencies of subjects.
Mastery Learning Traits
According to Suryosubroto (1997), the characteristics of a learning model with the principle of complete learning or mastery learning are as follows:
- Teaching is based on predetermined educational objectives. This means that the purpose of the teaching-learning strategy is that almost all students or all students can achieve the level of mastery of educational objectives. So both ways of learning teaching and evaluation tools used to regulate the success of students should be closely related to the objectives of the education that will be achieved.
- Pay attention to individual differences. What is meant by the difference here is the students ' differences in regards to receiving the stimulus from the outside and from within itself and the pace of study, in which case the development of the teaching-learning process should be adapted to the sensitivity of the sense of the students? So learning to teach that uses only one method and one media type can not provide the expected results. On the contrary, teaching using multi-method and multi-media will result in a quality and relevant learning process.
- Evaluation is done continuously and is based on criteria. This continuous evaluation is necessary so that the teacher can receive quick/immediate feedback, often and systematically. So evaluation is done at the beginning during and at the end of the learning process progresses. Evaluation based on criteria of identifying 2 kinds of formative evaluation and summative evaluation.
- Using remedial programs and enrichment programs. Improvement programs and enrichment programs are as a result of the continuous use of evaluation and based on criteria as well as views on the differences in learning speed of students and school administration. The improvement program is shown to those who have not mastered the specific instructional objectives, while the enrichment program is given to those who have mastered the unit of study given.
- Using the principle of active learning students. Students ' principles of active learning enable students to gain knowledge based on their own activities. How to learn to pursue so encourage students to ask if experiencing difficulties, looking for other books or resources to solve the problems he faced. In addition, the principle of active learning students can develop cognitive skills, manual skills of creativity, and logical thinking.
- Use a small lesson unit. Learning to teach using the complete learning principle demands the sharing of teaching materials into small units. The Division of the study unit into small parts is indispensable in order to obtain feedback as quickly as possible. Thus the teacher can do the improvement efforts as early as possible.
Variable Mastery Learning
There are several variables to be considered in implementing a complete learning system or mastery learning, namely:
- Aptitude. The results show that there is a fairly high correlation between talent and lesson results.
- Persistence of learning (perseverance). Persistence is closely related to the encouragement that arises in students to learn and process information effectively and efficiently and the development of interests and attitudes manifested in every instructional step.
- Quality of instruction. Learning quality is a condition that encourages students to be active in learning and maintaining their condition in order to remain ready to receive lessons. Quality of learning is determined by the quality of presentation, explanation, and arrangement of learning task elements.
- The time allowed for learning. The provision of sufficient time to learn in order to achieve the instructional objectives defined in a subject, field of study, or subject differs according to the weight of the lesson and the purpose set.
Mastery Learning Steps
According to Wena (2011), the steps of the learning-completed model or mastery learning are as follows:
At this stage of orientation is done setting a body of learning. During this stage, teachers explain the purpose of learning, the tasks that will be undertaken, and develop the responsibilities of students. The important steps that must be taken at this stage are (1) teachers explaining the purpose of learning and the requirements of graduation, (2) explaining the learning materials and related to the previous learning and the daily experience of students, and (3) Teachers discuss learning measures such as the various components of learning content and the responsibilities of students who are expected during the learning process.
In this stage, the teacher explains the new concepts or skills accompanied by examples. The use of learning media, both visual and visual audio, is strongly advised in the presentation of learning materials. In this step, it is necessary to evaluate how far the students have understood the material being taught. As such, students will not have difficulty at the next stage of exercise.
C. Structured exercises
In this stage, the teacher provides students with examples of problem-solving practices, in the form of important steps gradually. At this stage students need to be given some questions, then the teacher provides feedback on students ' answers.
D. Guided Exercises
At this stage, teachers give students an opportunity to practice solving a problem, but still under guidance. Through this guided activity allows teachers to assess the ability of students to complete the tasks given and see their errors.
The self-training stage is at the heart of this strategy. Self-training is performed when the student has achieved a performance score of 85%-90% in a guided exercise stage. The teacher's role in this stage is to assess the student's work after completion.
Advantages and disadvantages of Mastery Learning
According to Mariana (2003), there are advantages and disadvantages of using the finished learning model or mastery learning, among others are as follows:
A. Excess Mastery Learning
The benefits of Mastery learning are:
- Finished learning is more effective than learning that does not understand complete learning. The excellence of learning is complete including student achievement and retention (endurance concepts learned) are more durable.
- The overall student learning efficiency is higher on learning due to learning that does not apply to complete learning. Students who are relatively slow to possess the competency standard can learn almost the same as the students who have the higher abilities.
- The attitudes posed by students follow positive-due learning, as opposed to learning that does not embrace complete learning. There are a positive attitude and a great curiosity about the subject matter he learns. Other positive attitudes such as the existence of meaningful confidence, willingness to study cooperatively with each other, and a positive attitude to the learning by giving great attention.
B. Lacks Mastery Learning
The lack or weakness of mastery learning are:
- The teachers who have already used the old technique are difficult to adapt.
- It needs a variety of facilities, and funds are quite large. Prosecuting teachers to better master the material more broadly than the standards set.
- The UAS and UAN test system enacted that demanded the course of the study program at the appointed time and the student preparatory effort to take the exam.