**Understanding Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Learning Methods**

Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) is a learning model that emphasizes students to be able to conclude the material that has been learned by its own sentences and can identify concepts and provide examples or Illustrations that can illustrate examples performed by systematically studying the concepts.

CUPs Learning Model was first developed by Richard F. Gunstone from Monash University, Australia through Project For Enhancing Learning (PEEL). CUPs were developed in 1996 by Davis Mills and Susan Feteris (School of Physics and Materials Engineering at MonashUniversity) as well as Pam Mulhall and Brian Mckittrick (Faculty of Education). CUPs have been refurbished in 1999, 2001 and 2007 by Pam Mulhall and Brian Mckittrick.

The Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Learning Model is based on the constructivism approach, which is a learning approach that invites students to think and construct in solving a problem together, Based on the belief that students construct an understanding of concepts by expanding or modifying existing knowledge so that an accurate solution is obtained.

CUPs Learning Model was first developed by Richard F. Gunstone from Monash University, Australia through Project For Enhancing Learning (PEEL). CUPs were developed in 1996 by Davis Mills and Susan Feteris (School of Physics and Materials Engineering at MonashUniversity) as well as Pam Mulhall and Brian Mckittrick (Faculty of Education). CUPs have been refurbished in 1999, 2001 and 2007 by Pam Mulhall and Brian Mckittrick.

The Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Learning Model is based on the constructivism approach, which is a learning approach that invites students to think and construct in solving a problem together, Based on the belief that students construct an understanding of concepts by expanding or modifying existing knowledge so that an accurate solution is obtained.

Here's the definition and understanding of the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Learning method:

- According to Hikmah et al (2014), the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Learning Model is the development of a cooperative learning model, where a learning model aims to help improve the understanding of concepts deemed Difficult for learners.
- According to Gunstone DKK (2009), CUPs Learning model is a teaching procedure designed to develop an understanding of concepts that are felt difficult for students by enhancing students ' active roles in teaching and learning activities, as well as building An approach based on the belief that students build their own understanding of a concept with existing developments.
- According to Mariana and Praginda (2009), in the application of the CUPs learning model, students were divided into small groups. Each group consists of three students (triplets), but the Group division can adjust the number of students in the class. The Division of the group is done heterogeneous, meaning that each group must have at least one young student. The cognitive abilities of students in one group must also convergent (low-medium-high).

**CUPs Learning Model Stages**

According to Mariana and Praginda (2009), the stages of the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning model are as follows.

- Learners are faced with a physics problem to solve individually.
- Learners are grouped, each group of three learners (triplets) with varying abilities (high-low) based on the category teachers make. In the division of the group, a male student must always be in each group. If the class cannot be grouped per three learners (triplets), then the whole class is arranged into a triplet and the rest is merged into the existing triplet. The triplet group Model as shown below.

- Once the learners are grouped, then each group discusses the same problems as the problems that must be solved in groups. In the implementation of group discussions (triplets), educators surround the class to classify matters pertaining to problems when needed, but the teacher is not involved much in the discussion.
- Class discussion. In this stage the work of triplets is displayed in front of the class, then all learners sit by the display of answers to form U so that all learners can see the entire answer clearly, as shown in the image below.

- Educators see similarities and differences in student answers, perhaps there are a number of common answers. Class discussions can be initiated by selecting one answer that is considered to represent all of the answers. Then educators ask members of triplets whose answers were taken by educators, to explain the answers they made. The answer to a different triplet group with the triplet answer chosen by the educator is then given the opportunity to explain the answer.
- Based on both different answers, learners are given the opportunity to define their own arguments so that the agreement is regarded as the final answer. In this case, the educator does not explain the actual answer. In addition to this process, learners are really required to think, so educators should pay attention to the waiting time before asking follow-up questions.
- At the end of the discussion, educators should be able to see that each student is really aware of an approved answer. And learners can also write down answers on the papers they display (without further commentary). If learners are not able to reach an agreement, then educators may conclude the outcome of the discussion and convince learners that the conclusion is acceptable.

**Advantages and disadvantages of CUPs learning models**

According to Thobroni (2015), the advantages and disadvantages of the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning model, are as follows:

**a. Advantages**

- The advantages or advantages of the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning model are:
- Give students the opportunity to observe individual problems before discussing with their group mates, so that they can stimulate students to construct their own knowledge first.
- Train students to come up with their own opinions, approve or oppose their friends ' opinions.
- Foster a feeling of responsibility about an opinion, conclusion, or decision that would or has been taken.
- By seeing or listening to all the outcomes of the problems expressed by his friends, the students ' knowledge of the problem will be wider.

**b. Disadvantages**

The disadvantages or weaknesses of the Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning model are:

- Takes time to prepare for learning.
- It is important for teachers to pay attention to time in individual learning, group discussions, and class discussions.
- Group discussions and class discussions may be dominated by students who have high academic skills and are courageous or have regular speech, whereas students with moderate and low or shy academic skills will not participate in discussions and Speaking in class discussions.